Overall, there has been a drastic shift in emphasis on the role of arts and culture in the EU policy agenda. Apart from the role that the arts can play within a diverse Europe to show and to reflect upon that diversity, the emphasis lies more and more on the transversal role of the arts vis-à-vis other policy contexts: regional, social, economical, environmental and innovation policies. Those roles are often captured in the concept of the ‘spill-over effects’ of the arts. Critics of this approach argue that these changing contexts treat the arts merely as an instrument for non-artistic purposes – and stress that the unique quality of the arts is absolutely a necessary condition for the arts to be effective in any context.